Grade Inflation


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Darby, R. (1995). Broccoli and cotton candy: Factors affecting teacher ratings. Society for a Return to Academic Standards, http://tamu.ed.8ooo/-crumble/sfrtas.html

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Trout, P. A. (1997b). What the numbers mean: Providing a context for numerical student evaluation of courses. Change, 29, 24-30.

Trout, P. A. (1998, July 24). Incivility in the classroom breeds "education lite." Chronicle of Higher Education, p. A46.

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Selected bibliography

Archibold, R. (1998, February 18). Just because the grades are up, are Princeton students smarter? New York Times, p. 1.

Baker, P. C. (1994, February 9). The causes and consequences of grade inflation [Letter to the Editor]. Chronicle of Higher Education, p. B3.

Becker, G. S. (1965). A theory of the allocation of time. Economic Journal, 75, 493-517.

Becker, H. S. (1995). Introduction to Transaction edition: "Making the grade" revisited. In H. S. Becker, B. Geer and E. C. Hughes (Eds.) Making the grade: The academic side of college life (pp xi - xx). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Du Cette, J., & Kenney, J. (1982). Do grading standards affect student evaluations of teaching? Some new evidence on an old question. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 308-314.

Goldman, L. (1985). The betrayal of the gatekeepers: Grade inflation. Journal of General Education, 37, 97-121.

Hardy, L. (1985, December). Grade inflation: When everyone gets high marks, what's an A really worth? American School Board Journal, pp. 28-30.

Healey, P. (1997). HOPE scholarships transform the University of Georgia. Chronicle of Higher Education, 40. 32-34.

Hearn, A. (2002, June). Corporate U. thrives on alienated scholars. CAUT Bulletin, p. A14.

Hettinger, J. (1994, February 9). The causes and consequences of grade inflation [Letter to the Editor]. Chronicle of Higher Education, p. B4.

Kolevzon, M. S. (1981). Grade inflation in higher education: A comparative study. Research in Higher Education, 15, 195-212.

Levine, A., Kendig, N., & Bae, M. (1997). Collegiate life: An obituary. Change, 30, 12-17, 51.

McConahay, ___, & Cote, R. (1998). The expanded grade context reward at Indiana University. Available at:

McKeachie, W. J., Lin, Y. G. , & Mann, W. (1971). Student ratings of teacher effectiveness: Validity studies. American Educational Research Journal, 8, 435-445.

Worthington, A. G., & Wong, P. T. (1979). Effects of earned and assigned grades on student evaluations of an instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 764-775.

© Margret Winzer, 2005. This site last updated: May 3, 2005